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OPINION

Tech 101: About that Ducati Panigale V4 engine…

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When the Ducati V4 Panigale came out earlier this week, I was as giddy as a school girl.

Excited to spread the word of Panigale, I found my nearest mate to wax poetic about all the awesome technology and engineering in this new bike.

After going on for several minutes I realized they were just staring at me, with a glazed over look in their eye. It was at that moment that I realized: perhaps maybe not everyone knows what the heck I, or the press releases, were talking about.

So, in an attempt to explain some of the technology in the new Panigale – and to relive myself of the pressure from not having anyone to talk to about it all – I present to you three key engine features, what they do, and why it matters.

Now, I am not an engineer, professional mechanic, or in fact a subject matter expert in this field of any kind. I am merely an enthusiast who wants to spread some knowledge and hopefully engage in some conversation.

So, if you feel something should be discussed further, or if I get something wrong, please feel free to let me know in the comments (I’m sure you will ;p).

Desmodromic Valves

This is a Ducati staple and one of the most identifiable features of a Duc, so it was the most natural place to start. In a traditional Overhead valve (OHV) system, the rotating cam lobe will push open the valve. Sometimes this is done directly, other times via a rocker arm. Then, to close the valve, a valve spring shuts the valve once the cam lobe rolls past. This is where the Desmo system differs. Desmodromic valves are actually opened and closed by a rocker arm as the cams rotate.

 

Desmodromics were born in a time when valve springs were less than reliable. While Ducati did not invent this system, they have been using it since 1956 when Fablio Taglioni first put it in a 125cc machine. With modern technology, springs are just as reliable as the Desmo system. Ducati continues using it today because it is a large part of their heritage.

Fun fact:
Desmodromic Ducati’s do not have a redline on the tachometer. A red line indicates valve float: the point at which the engine is moving so fast the springs can’t close the valves fast enough, causing intake and exhaust to open at the same time, ergo losing efficiency. Since Desmodromics don’t use springs = no valve float.

Twin Pulse Firing Order

This is straight out of the MotoGP handbook but has also been used in the L-Twin bikes for some time. Also know as the “Big Bang” firing order, this type of layout allows a sudden pulse of power followed by a period of rest in the crankshaft rotation. What this allows is the bike to put down massive power while also being able to maintain traction and a level of control by the rider.

Claudio Domincalli stated,

“We designed an engine with four round pistons which, thanks to a simultaneous two-by-two firing order, reproduce the working cycle of a twin.

This will generate the ‘big bang’ effect, making the rear tyre work in a way that extends its duration and improves rider feeling when exiting curves.”

For a quick visual, check out this video…

 

Counter Rotating crankshaft

Traditionally, a motorcycle’s engine rotates the same direction as the wheels. This makes sense for the most part because you can attach a countershaft sprocket and move the wheels forward. However, a spinning engine, much like spinning wheels, creates a gyroscopic effect. The is the very same effect that keeps you upright when riding. The gyroscopic effect can also have some some negative consequences as well, including: resistance to turn in and change direction as well as more prone to wheelie.

 

So in order to combat all of this gyroscopic effect, Ducati (and many other brands) have adopted an engine that basically spins backwards in comparison to the wheels. This obviously takes some additional engineering to correct the rotation to the’s wheels, but the gains to the bike’s ability to turn in and change direction at the rider’s whim are worth it.

This is far from everything the new Ducati has to offer of course. But it’s enough to start with and it would be impossible to put it all onto a single page.

However, if you have anything to share, knowledge of your own to impart of just want to point out something wildly inaccurate, then please let us know.

It’s good to talk!

Sources:
http://www.motorsportmagazine.com/opinion/motogp/why-motogp-going-backwards

https://www.revzilla.com/common-tread/why-things-are-the-way-they-are-desmodromic-valves

http://www.crash.net/motogp/news/74205/1/back-to-the-future-for-ducati-twin-pulse

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OPINION

When Projects Creep Out of Control

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Is ‘more’ always better?

Back in 2008, after more than a decade working in the motorcycle industry, I finally bought my first brand new bike. Like the kid in the proverbial candy store, I wandering through my local motorcycle dealer with my stomach in knots knowing that one of these shiny, magnificent machines would be mine. And like so many people tilted by emotion, despite years of experience and insider knowledge, or perhaps because of it, I let excitement take over the decision making process. I bought a motorcycle far beyond my needs.

It was not long after taking possession of my Yamaha FZ-1 that I realized my mistake. The bike was technically faultless, the problem lay in that it was not at all what I needed. With a tiny fuel capacity and very firm ride it was a lousy touring rig (especially in Quebec where road surface quality is akin to a bombed out airstrip), but conversely it was too bulky and heavy to flick into corners on curvy A roads. It was bigger, faster, incorporated superior suspension and materials technology than it’s predecessor, the Fazer 1000 I helped develop years earlier, an yet somehow the new package was less motorcycle.

When you ask motorcyclists what they want in a new bike, the answer is always “more”. More power, more space, more features. The only thing they don’t want more of is cost. It makes sense, after all we all want more of a good thing. With motorcycles problems often arise when designers and engineers are tasked with piling on those ever increasing specifications to an existing model. This mission creep can, if not managed carefully by a strong project leader, end with a product so packed with features and high specification that it can do everything, but none of it particularly well.

The 1998 – 2004 Yamaha FZS600 Fazer was a wildly successful motorcycle design. At a time when entry level, middle displacement (500cc to 650cc) street bikes were either extremely basic or used obsolete technology, the Fazer delivered modern handling and performance in a user-friendly package. Featuring the engine and brakes from Yamaha’s YZF600R Thundercat, and a compliant chassis made of steel pipe to keep costs down, the little Fazer sold like mad satisfying a wide array of beginners and experienced riders alike.

With motorcycles the temptation is always to add more performance.

Yamaha introduced a mildly revised version two years later, along with the aforementioned larger, 1000cc version. Honda blatantly copied the Fazer formula of packaging supersport technology into an inexpensive package with the CB600F Hornet. Yamaha saw sales plummet, so along with a dozen other designers and engineers I was brought into a group to create the next, all-beating Fazer.

And that’s when the wheels came off the cart.

A whirlwind tour of European cities took place in which we interviewed hundreds of entry-level 600cc customers. The specification list grew longer and longer each day, as the demands of existing users piled on. More fuel tank range! More wind protection! More cargo carrying capacity! And of course… more power! Always more power.

Back at headquarters, the project leader handed over the design brief. As a very young designer I was confused. The new Fazer would now have an R6 motor. It would feature an all aluminum, Deltabox frame, lightweight R6 rims and a 180 section rear tire. Projector headlights. LEDs. Twin, under seat stainless steel exhausts. The brief read like the spec sheet from a top-of-the-line flagship project, not the replacement for Yamaha Motor Europe’s best selling motorcycle.

This is project creep, and it happens when an organization is beset by fear and acts out of ignorance of the big picture. The reasoning behind this phenomenon seems sound: if your opponent has three guys with knives, you better make sure you have six. It makes sense until you discover that you only have enough food for four, and so field six starved, exhausted guys against three strong and healthy ones. In manufacturing history there are hundreds of examples of this, the most famous of which may be the case of the Ford Edsel. It had more of everything than any of its competitors, and yet was so much less car.

With motorcycles the temptation is always to add more performance. After all, motorcyclists are fundamentally sold on the thrill of speed and aggressive handling. The problem is that too much performance makes most motorcycles into unmanageable, sphincter-clenching torture devices. Among our tribe few are skilled enough to exploit even half of the potential of modern bikes, which makes adding high performance to models destined for the rest of us an academic exercise. Of course our egos won’t allow us to admit it, but inside we are terrified of opening the throttle fully mid-corner. So we don’t, and wobble around on large, expensive bikes that not only don’t satisfy, but fill us with regret because we cannot master the objects of our desire.

At the cruiser end of the spectrum, the height of the chopper era saw mature, fully grown manufacturers launch models that were laden with Edsel-like heapings of features. The Honda Rune was presented as the end-all, be-all of the cruiser genre. According to Honda America’s Ray Blank, they “…wanted to set the bar higher than ever, erecting standards that no one else had yet imagined.”.

The result was a seven foot long, 400 kg, six cylinder monster that boasted 50% more torque than Honda’s then flagship superbike.

It was literally the most cruiser you could buy from any mainstream manufacturer, and yet its’ excess was its failure. At $30,000 (US) it wasn’t more expensive than a range topping Harley-Davidson, but the market balked at its bulk and cornucopia of pointless styling. Honda had failed completely to stop the design at some stage and roll it back, asking the team to refocus on what make people yearn to cruise on a motorcycle: the simple joy of sitting astride a large mechanical powertrain suspended between two chunky tires. The Chopper is, by definition, a bike “chopped” down to its basic, core elements. A little baroque styling and flair is cool, but it is not the main attraction.

As an industry, the motorcycle business is not very good at learning the lesson of project creep. The endless fight to produce the sexiest products in the marketplace inevitably drive an arms race that produces some great innovation but also squeezes out lots of poorly conceived motorcycles. If a bike comes out with a strong styling direction that hits the market like a storm, then simply copying it only with a more extreme execution is not going to work. When a competitor eats your lunch, as the Honda Hornet did when it replicated the original Yamaha Fazer concept in 2003, then just doubling down on everything is not going to win the market back.

How did we end up in a place where an entry-level street bike comes with racing style, upside-down forks and a mouse pad for a seat?

The second generation FZS600 (called the FZ6 in North America) that debuted in 2005 with all those crazy upmarket features did well in Europe for a few years, but alienated a lot of customers who loved the original Fazer’s rugged, approachable simplicity. They flocked to the second generation Suzuki SV650S, which was a better Fazer than the new FZ6 (ironically, the Suzuki’s styling was almost a copy of the updated original Fazer). By 2008, Yamaha introduced the FZ6R, a confusingly named but genuine successor to the formula that was simple, cheap, versatile and easy to use. It quietly dropped the over-spec’ed FZ6 Fazer without a replacement a year later.

In the market battlespace, project creep is easily seen in the most hotly contested areas. The 250cc class ballooned to 300cc because Kawasaki needed to edge out the class leading Honda CBR250. Then KTM launched the RC390, resplendent in its superior specification. The new Honda CBR250RR presented this winter is a very far cry from the CBR250 I tested in 2011. In five short years, the baby Honda sport bike went from being what I called “the missing link”, a motorcycle for everyone that the industry so badly needed, to being a mini CBR1000RR World Superbike contender.

I love the look of the CBR250RR, and if I am completely honest I want one rather badly. But how did we end up in a place where an entry-level street bike comes with racing style, upside-down forks and a mouse pad for a seat? I suspect it has a lot to do with looking ahead instead of behind. I’ve seen this show and I know the ending. In five years time the 250cc class will be dead again, because it will have priced itself out of the marketplace.

Getting excited and dreaming of the ultimate motorcycle is the job, but it is also the duty of manufacturers to deliver products people can actually afford and use. The ultimate anything is, as the word suggests, the last of the line. And winning the battle for the ultimate product is meaningless if you destroy the consumer base as a consequence.

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OPINION

FFS

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Ladies and Gentleman, motorcycling.

So many things to say, so few cares left to give, but c’mon people? Is this really want we think passes as a way to attract people to a biking festival?

Sure, as the guys from the Two Enthusiasts podcast so eloquently put it in their latest episode, ‘people like to see boobs’. But do you know a better way to double your boob quota for an event?

Yep – like the same guys from the same podcast also suggest – why not produce an environment that’s inclusive to women and may actually encourage them stick around and pay an interest towards these wonderful, two-wheeled machines.

Also, Bridgestone? You should know better. Even Pirelli have stopped that nonsense with their calendar now and moved on to something far more interesting.

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